Rotterdam    

說到鹿特丹(Rotterdam)大家應該也不陌生,最容易聯想到的當然就是方塊屋以及伊拉斯謨橋(Erasmusbrug|Erasmus Bridge)

鹿特丹荷蘭語:Rotterdam)是荷蘭第二大城市(第一大是阿姆斯特丹),位於荷蘭的南荷蘭省,Nieuwe Maas河畔。鹿特丹的名字來自於在市中心注入Nieuwe Maas河的小河鹿特河和荷蘭詞Dam(壩)。

鹿特丹長期為歐洲最大的海港,以貨櫃運量計算,1980年代曾是世界第一大港口,在2010年為世界第10。

至少公元900年左右,在匯入沼澤的鹿特河(Rotta,由代表「泥濘」的Rot和代表「水域」的詞綴a組成,意為泥濘的水域)的下游便有人居住了。1150年前後,為了抵禦洪水,當地居民開始修建堤壩。1260年左右,人們在在鹿特河上建成了一座大壩,是為Dam on the RotteRotterdam;此即為鹿特丹名字的起源。

 Rotterdam is the second-largestcity in the Netherlands and one of the largest ports in the world. Starting as a damconstructed in 1270 on the Rotte River, Rotterdam has grown into a major international commercial centre. Its strategic location at the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta on the North Sea and at the heart of a massive rail, road, air and inland waterway distribution system extending throughout Europe is the reason that Rotterdam is often called the "Gateway to Europe".

In the province of South Holland, Rotterdam is in the west of Netherlands and the south of the Randstad. The population of the city was 616,250 on February 1, 2012. The population of the greater Rotterdam area, called "Rotterdam-Rijnmond" or just "Rijnmond", is approximately 1.3 million. One of Europe's most vibrant, multicultural cities, Rotterdam is known for its university (Erasmus), cutting-edge architecture, lively cultural life, striking riverside setting and maritime heritage. It is also known for the Rotterdam Blitz.

The largest port in Europe and one of the busiest ports in the world, the port of Rotterdam was the world's busiest port from 1962 to 2004, when it was surpassed by Shanghai. Rotterdam's commercial and strategic importance is based on its location near the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas (New Meuse), a channel in the delta formed by the Rhine and Meuse on the North Sea. These rivers lead directly into the centre of Europe, including the industrial Ruhr region. Rotterdam is currentlybidding to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.

鹿特丹官方資訊網(Rotterdam Info),當地旅遊相關資訊都可以在這個網站找到,相當實用。

Rotterdam Info  

鹿特丹車站(Rotterdam Centraal)

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

鹿特丹(Rotterdam)最高辦公大樓Gebouw Delftse Poort(161m/520ft.)。

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

▼鹿特丹的天空。

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林班徒步購物街(Lijnbaan),名牌專賣店林立的行人徒步區,是鹿特丹最適合逛街的好地方!

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布斯特維斯購物中心(Shopping Center Beurstraverse),購物中心以及地下商店街!

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林班徒步購物街(Lijnbaan Info相關資訊

LIJNBAAN & BEURSPLEIN  

鹿特丹都市建築諮詢中心(City Info Rotterdam)

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鹿特丹都市建築諮詢中心(City Info Rotterdam)有整個城市的建築模型,可以在這裡找到想去的地方以及相關資訊。

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

鹿特丹官方資訊網(Rotterdam Info)

Rotterdam Info

伊拉斯謨橋(Erasmusbrug|Erasmus Bridge)

City Flyer @ Pixnet

 

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

▼簡潔充滿張力的造型。

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

伊拉斯謨橋(Erasmusbrug|Erasmus Bridge)(1996年) 是一座790米(2,600 ft)的斜拉橋,連接鹿特丹北部和南部。它由一個138m(453 ft)高的帶有一特有彎曲的橋塔(pylon)支撐,後者令該橋獲得了其暱稱「天鵝」('De Zwaan',即'the Swan')。

The Erasmusbrug ("Erasmus Bridge") is a cable-stayed bridgeacross the Nieuwe Maas (English: New Meuse) river, linking the northern and southern halves of the city of Rotterdam, TheNetherlands.

The Erasmusbrug was designed by Ben van Berkel and completed in 1996. The 802-metre-long (2,631 ft) bridge has a 139-metre-high (456 ft) asymmetrical pylon, earning the bridge its nickname of "The Swan".

The southern span of the bridge has an 89-metre-long (292 ft) bascule bridge for ships that cannot pass under the bridge. The bascule bridge is the largest and heaviest in West Europe and has the largest panel of its type in the world.

The bridge was officially opened by Queen Beatrix on September 6, 1996, having cost 163 million euros to construct.Shortly after the bridge opened to traffic in October 1996, it was discovered the bridge would swing under particularly strong wind conditions. To reduce the trembling, stronger shock dampers were installed.

The bridge featured in the 1998 Jackie Chan film Who Am I?. In 2005, several planes flew underneath the bridge as part of the "Red Bull Air Race".

In 2005, the bridge served as the backdrop for a performance by DJ Tiësto titled "Tiësto @ The Bridge, Rotterdam". The performance featured fire-fighting ships spraying jets of water into the air in front of the bridge, a fireworks barge launching fireworks beside the bridge, and multi coloured spot/search lights attached to the bridge itself.

The bridge was crossed during the prologue and the opening stage of the 2010 Tour de France.

 ▼橋身的Erasmusbrug字樣。

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

City Flyer @ Pixnet

▼外部連結 External Links :

Erasmus Bridge

Erasmusbruge on bridge-info.org

Imágenes y descripción del puente Erasmo en PUENTEMANÍA (español)

 ▼太空塔(Euromast)鹿特丹最高聳的地標(185M)。

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太空塔官方資訊網(Euromast Official Site)

Euromast  

海事博物館(Maritiem Museum Rotterdam)

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City Flyer @ Pixnet

海事博物館官方資訊網(Maritiem Museum Rotterdam Official Site)

Maritiem Museum Rotterdam  

巴弗艦(Buffel),停駐與海事博物館(Maritiem Museum Rotterdam)後方。

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方塊屋(Cube Houses)鹿特丹最知名的地標之一;也是荷蘭最具代表性的當代建築。

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Kubuswoningen, or cube houses, are a set of innovative houses built in Rotterdam andHelmond in The Netherlands, designed by architect Piet Blom and based on the concept of "living as an urban roof": high density housing with sufficient space on the ground level. Blom tilted the cube of a conventional house 45 degrees, and rested it upon a hexagon-shapedpylon. His design represents a village within a city, where each house represents a tree, and all the houses together, a forest.

方塊屋官方資訊網(Cube Houses Official Site)

Cube house  

▼搶眼的新鮮黃色與造型,很難被遊客忽略!

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

 ▼從階梯上去可以購票參觀,票價是2.5€

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

 ▼這是負責售票的先生,很喜歡跟遊客交談。

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

 ▼雖然是傾斜的造型,但機能並沒有因此被犧牲掉。

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

▼伴隨著鹿特丹的陽光,可以讓人在這個角落度過一個下午。

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

 ▼布萊克車站(Rotterdam Blaak Railway Station),酷似飛碟的造型,跟方塊屋一樣吸引觀光客。

City Flyer @ Pixnet

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

Rotterdam Blaak is a railway station and metro station in the Dutch city ofRotterdam, located on the Breda–Rotterdam railway between Rotterdam andDordrecht. The station is located in the centre of the city, near the cube houses.

On May 2, 1877, the first railway station on this location was opened, then called Rotterdam Beurs. This station was part of a 2.2 km (1.4 mi) long viaduct. After the station had been destroyed during World War II, a new station opened in 1953, called Rotterdam Blaak.

When the underground metro station, which opened on 6 May 1982, was built space was already reserved for a possible underground railway station directly underneath the metro station. On 15 September 1993, this new underground railway station was opened, as part of a 2.8 km (1.7 mi) long tunnel. This tunnel, including the station, now had 4 tracks instead of the 2 on the viaduct.

Train services are operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen or NS.

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

博物館公園(Museumpark Rotterdam),水池週遭的草地上不時會出現兔子及鴨子等小動物,彷彿來到仙境一般。

City Flyer @ Pixnet

Museumpark Rotterdam

www.museumparkrotterdam.nl

荷蘭國家建築中心(NAi)、博曼斯美術館(Museum Boijmans van Beuningen)、展覽中心(Kunsthal)、自然歷史博物館(Historisch Museum Rotterdam)等,都集中在博物館公園(Museumpark)週遭,也讓這一帶成為鹿特丹最有看頭的區域。

Museumpark is a park in RotterdamThe Netherlands, located between the Museum Boijmans Van BeuningenWestersingelWestzeedijk and the complex of the Erasmus MC, a medical centre affiliated with the Erasmus University.

The park lies on the former land of the Hoboken family, who lived in the building that is now theNatuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam. The park was laid out in 1927 to the design of the architect Witteveen. On the south side of the pond in the park a monument for Gerrit Jongh, director of municipal works in Rotterdam. There are several artworks in the park, so it also acts as an open air museum.

There are a number of museums located in the vicinity of the park, hence the name:

*The Netherlands Architecture Institute (NAi)

*Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen

*The Chabot Museum

*The Kunsthal

*Villa Sonneveld

*Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam

 

 ▼荷蘭國家建築中心(NAi,Netherlands Architecture Institute),不僅是座博物館,也是一個對大眾開放的文化機構,利用各種方式呈現建築與人的關聯性與想法。

City Flyer @ Pixnet

荷蘭國家建築中心官方資訊網(NAi Official Site) 

NAi   

荷蘭國家建築中心(NAi)週遭環境及建築群。

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

City Flyer @ Pixnet

博曼斯美術館(Museum Boijmans van Beuningen),除了豐富的館藏以外,販賣部的商品多到令人愛不釋手。

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

博曼斯美術館官方資訊網(Museum Boijmans van Beuningen Official Site  

Museum Boijmans van Beuningen  

展覽中心(Kunsthal),由大師雷姆.庫哈斯(Rem Koolhaas)操刀設計,是鹿特丹最具人氣的建築作品。

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展覽中心官方資訊網(Kunsthal Official Site)

Kunsthal  

自然歷史博物館(Historisch Museum Rotterdam)

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 ▼從玻璃反射可以發現與展覽中心(Kunsthal)緊鄰。

City Flyer @ Pixnet 

自然歷史博物館官方資訊網(Historisch Museum Rotterdam Official Site)

Historisch Museum Rotterdam  

 

外部連結(External Links)

荷蘭觀光旅遊局(台灣版)

荷蘭觀光旅遊局

NS,荷蘭國鐵官方資訊網。

NS 

鹿特丹官方資訊網(Rotterdam Info)

Rotterdam Info 

林班徒步購物街(Lijnbaan Info相關資訊

LIJNBAAN & BEURSPLEIN 

Erasmus Bridge

Erasmusbruge on bridge-info.org

Imágenes y descripción del puente Erasmo en PUENTEMANÍA (español)

 

太空塔官方資訊網(Euromast Official Site)

Euromast 

海事博物館官方資訊網(Maritiem Museum Rotterdam Official Site)

Maritiem Museum Rotterdam 

方塊屋官方資訊網(Cube Houses Official Site)

Cube house 

▼Museumpark Rotterdam

www.museumparkrotterdam.nl

荷蘭國家建築中心官方資訊網(NAi Official Site): 

NAi

博曼斯美術館官方資訊網(Museum Boijmans van Beuningen Official Site  

Museum Boijmans van Beuningen

展覽中心官方資訊網(Kunsthal Official Site) 

Kunsthal 

自然歷史博物館官方資訊網(Historisch Museum Rotterdam Official Site)

Historisch Museum Rotterdam

 

 

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